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About EU-MODA

The Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA) applies internationally accepted standards for the construction of indicators, dimensions, and thresholds that are essential to children's well-being irrespective of their country of residence, socio-economic status, or culture. It is based on the MODA methodology developed by the UNICEF Office of Research and the Division of Policy and Strategy to enhance the equity focus of child poverty and deprivation analyses around the world (http://www.unicef-irc.org/MODA/). The EU-MODA uses cross-country comparable data for 27 EU member states, as well as Iceland and Norway, from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) 2009. This round of the EU-SILC collects information about the lack of items specific to children, allowing for the study of multidimensional deprivation at the level of the child rather than that of the household. For a full description of the EU-MODA methodology, please see the "EU-MODA Technical Note".

Following the life-cycle approach, but subject to data constraints, the EU-MODA uses three distinct age-groups: pre-school age children (those between the age of one and the national minimum compulsory school age); school-age children under 16; and young people aged 17-18. This approach recognizes that different dimensions are relevant for children at various stages of their life cycle. For instance, the early childhood education and care (ECEC) dimension is more relevant to the pre-school years; educational resources, such as a suitable place at home to study, is more pertinent for school-age children; while economic activity is more important to older children. For a detailed description of indicators and thresholds used to construct the dimensions of child deprivation in the EU-MODA, please see the note: "Standard definition of indicators (EU-MODA)".

Yet, as certain dimensions are relevant to the well-being of all children, there is some overlap in dimensions of deprivation across the three age groups. Three dimensions of deprivation are common to all three: clothing, information, and housing. The nutrition dimension is available for the two younger age groups, but is missing for the older group due to lack of data. While healthcare access is crucial to children of all ages, the necessary indicators are available for the older age group only. All three age groups have a dimension referring to their social and/or leisure needs, but they are based on different age-appropriate indicators. As a result, six dimensions are available for pre-school children and those aged 17-18, while seven dimensions are studied for school-age children.

Since the EU-MODA aims to capture the situation of each child, the lack of data in some key dimensions of child well-being, as well as missing values for certain groups of children in particular countries in the EU-SILC database, present key challenges to the selection of dimensions, indicators, and thresholds. Cases with missing data in any of the indicators are excluded from the analysis. The EU-MODA Technical Note documents the proportions of children with missing observations in each age group and country, and explores the extent of potential bias arising from data missing not at random.

Life-cycle stages and dimensions used for the EU-MODA analysis

Below minimum compulsory school age (excluding those under one)
  • Nutrition
  • Clothing
  • Early childhood education and care (ECEC)
  • Child development
  • Information
  • Housing
School age, under 16
  • Nutrition
  • Clothing
  • Educational resources
  • Leisure
  • Social
  • Housing
Age 17-18
  • Clothing
  • Activity
  • Leisure and social
  • Information
  • Healthcare access
  • Housing